|Prof. Parasuraman of Texas A&M univ.|
Click for the original paper here from ResearchGate ..
The GAPs in service expectations, design, delivery and perception :
Gap 1 - difference between what customer expects and what managements perceives are the customers expectations
Gap 2 - difference between what management perceives and the service design
Gap 3 - difference between service design and what service delivery
Gap 4 - difference between service delivery and what customer perceives as service
Gap 5 - difference between customer expectations and customer perception,
The 22 questions measuring instrument is given here ..
The P-E score can be calculated for each of the 5 parameters and corrective actions can be initiated for those parameters. .
The total P-E score gives what the customer feels about the service.
If perceptions - expectations (P-E) is positive, it is customer delight
If perceptions = expectations, it is just okay service
If perceptions - expectations (P-E) is negative, it is deficient service